In the last Privacy and Security Series post, we talked about the importance of multi-factor authentication (MFA), also known as two-factor authentication (2FA). Enabling MFA is a giant leap forward when it comes to securing your online accounts — Google and Microsoft both say that enabling MFA blocks 99.9% of account hacks.
If hackers are germs, MFA is the Purell of internet account security.
So, you've followed the password best practices we talked about, and you have a password manager, and you've enabled MFA on your accounts. Is there more you can do? Yes, of course!
Going Farther with Two Factor Authentication #
Last week, Square & Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey had his Twitter account compromised by a SIM-swap attack. Long story short, a fraudster was able to convince someone working for AT&T to swap Jack's phone number to the fraudulent SIM, which was used to send Tweets via SMS.
Why does a SIM-swapping attack matter to you?
Well, if your MFA strategy is to have a one-time-password texted to your phone, you are vulnerable to a SIM-swap. Technically, anyone with a cellular device is vulnerable, but accounts backed by SMS-OTP MFA are vulnerable in particular.
Are there other downsides to SMS one-time-passwords?
Yeah, quite a few actually. As of July 2016, the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) said to stop using them. I discuss some additional downsides in the previous post.
What's a better alternative to SMS-OTPs?
Token-based OTPs (time-based OTPs)
- Is not vulnerable to the SIM-swapping attack because each one-time-password
is generated by a seed/token value. So long as
- the seed is not intercepted (which you can be reasonably sure of, if you trust the security of HTTPS/TLS and the root Certificate Authorities); and
- your OTP device is secure you are much more secure than with an SMS-based OTP.
- Is not vulnerable to the SIM-swapping attack because each one-time-password is generated by a seed/token value. So long as
U2F / Yubikey / Other smartcard / certificate authentication
Some companies, like Google, are supporting the FIDO/U2F/Yubikey approach, which involves the exchange of public keys to be matched with the private half of the keypair stored on secured hardware devices. So long as
- As long as no one steals your U2F device; and
- the encryption isn't cracked
you are even more secure than with Token-based OTPs, as the token seed is essentially the private key transmitted over the wire. The U2F approach keeps the private keys private.
Audit Your Settings #
Even after we've done the hard work of changing all our passwords and enabling multi-factor authentication on a bunch of services, there are still things you should do on a semi-frequent basis.
For one, you should scrutinize the list of apps/services that are "connected" to your accounts. Maybe you've used Boomerang for Gmail, or have apps that use files on Google Drive. When was the last time you checked out that list?
Below is a screenshot of some services that were connected to my Dropbox. I'm not proud of it. Look at how many entries have "full read/write access to any file".
Scrutinize this list and make sure you know every app and service that is connected. If you don't recognize an app, remove it and change your password. Do this frequently for your highest-risk accounts, like your email provider. Google, Microsoft, Facebook, and Twitter all provide app connections, so check them often.
Similarly, remove unknown or unused devices from your accounts. For example, your Google account may still have a phone registered and offer to send authentication push notifications to it. If you have any reason to believe a device is compromised, remove it.
Finally, review recent security events if possible. Some companies let you look at recent login attempts, app connections, etc. At this point, you should be reviewing any activity information you have about your account by default.
Google offers all of these features in an easy-to-use portal called "Security Checkup".
And yeah, my account does not get an A+ in security, because I have an unsigned third-party app connected to Google Sheets. The good news: it's a project I am developing, and I trust myself (mostly).
Next Time #
Of course there's more. We haven't even begun to talk about browser extensions which can seriously up your privacy game. Until then.